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To most casual observers, Panerai watches look incredibly similar across the board. This is to be expected since just about every Panerai watch draws design inspiration from diving watches made in the early-20th Century for the Royal Italian Navy. Subsequently, most Panerais share a handful of design traits, such as bold case silhouettes, minimal dials with oversized luminous hands and hour markers, and leather straps.

Panerai Watch Models Explained
A Panerai watch is one of the most recognizable ever made

Of course, Panerai has evolved its watches over the decades by not only tinkering with designs but also by introducing new materials, tech, and models. Yet, Panerai is renowned for sticking to a winning design blueprint; while this has paved the way for some of the most recognizable luxury watches ever made it can sometimes be challenging to understand the differences between various Panerai models. So if you have a hard time distinguishing one Panerai watch from another, read on as we explain the models in detail.

Panerai Radiomir

The design of the Panerai Radiomir is based on the prototype Panerai made for the frogmen of the Royal Italian Navy in 1936. The name Radiomir is derived from the type of radium-based luminescent Panerai patented and used on its earliest watches.

The defining characteristics of the Radiomir today include a large cushion-shaped case, a winding crown without crown guards, pair of large hands at the center of the dial pointing to oversized hour markers, and a strap.

Panerai Watch - Radiomir
Panerai Radiomir

Within the Panerai collection, Radiomir watches are considered the dressiest. They come in a range of case materials and dial colors. The most common sizes are 42, 45mm, and 47mm. Although there are some Radiomir watches with additional functions, such as GMT or Power Reserve indicators, the most common versions are time only.

Radiomir vs. Radiomir 1940

Within the Radiomir lineup, there are two main versions: Radiomir and Radiomir 1940. The Radiomir watches are characterized by wire lugs and flared crowns while the Radiomir 1940 watches feature thicker lugs and conical shaped crowns. The Radiomir debuted in 1997 and the Radiomir 1940 followed in 2012.

Panerai Luminor

Similar to the Radiomir name, the Luminor name is also taken from a Panerai-patented luminous paint–but based on tritium rather than radium. The Luminor silhouette, which is by far the most famous and popular Panerai watch shape, is inspired by a vintage Panerai from the 1950s.

The Luminor’s main signature design trait is a large cushion-shaped case fitted with a semi-circular piece on the case side to protect the winding crown. This bridge crown-guard is operated by a lever, which serves to press the crown securely into the case for optimal water resistance.

Panerai Watch - Luminor
Panerai Luminor Marina

The Panerai Luminor is available in a wide assortment of case materials and the most common sizes are 44m and 47mm. Though Luminor watches are largely time-only models, there are more complicated versions too such as GMT, chronograph, and more. Luminor Base models only have an hour and minute hand and Luminor Marina editions include a running seconds indicator at 9 o’clock.

Luminor vs. Luminor 1950 vs. Luminor Due

Panerai launched the Luminor in 1993 as part of its first collection for the public. In 2012, Panerai debut the Luminor 1950 iteration, with subtle differences from the original Luminor.

The Luminor has shorter lugs, a flatter crystal, and a straighter case middle. On the other hand, the Luminor 1950 has longer lugs, a domed crystal, and a u-shaped case middle. Furthermore, the Luminor 1950 includes a “R.E.G. T.M” marking on the crown guard while the Luminor does not. More often than not, the Luminor 1950 is furnished with a sapphire caseback for a view of the movement while the Luminor, which is commonly referred to as the “Bettarini case” after the designer, includes a solid caseback.

This particular Luminor has the crown guard on the left

In 2016, Panerai released the Luminor Due as a slimmer and somewhat dressier version of the Luminor. Although there are several sizes to choose from, the Luminor Due lineup is home to the smallest Panerai watches ever made, coming in at 38mm. The Luminor Due is also not as water-resistant as other Luminor models, rated to only 30 meters.

Panerai Submersible

Although the Radiomir and the Luminor are inspired by vintage diving watches, by today’s standards these are not considered dive watches. Conversely, the Submersible is Panerai’s modern dive watch, complete with a rotating timing bezel, a diver-style dial, and water-resistance ratings at 100 meters or more.

Panerai Watch - Submersible
The Submersible dive watch

Panerai launched the Luminor Submersible in 1998 in the form of the PAM 24. As its name suggests, the Submersible was part of the Luminor collection, borrowing the distinct case shape but fitted with the required rotating bezel graduated to 60 minutes for divers to track elapsed immersion times. Over the following years, Panerai continued to release more Luminor Submersible watches–some with 1000-meter water resistance ratings, which picked up the nickname “La Bomba.”

In 2019, the brand finally separated the Panerai Submersible into its own collection of watches. Although it still features the Luminor style case with the clever crown guard it no longer includes the Luminor name on the dial. Luminor Submersible watches typically come with 44mm or 47mm cases while current Submersible watches are available in 42mm or 47mm.

Panerai Ferrari

Both strong Italian brands famous for bold designs, Panerai and Ferrari formed a relationship in 2005. Although the partnership ended in 2010, the collaboration resulted in 20 limited-edition Panerai Ferrari watches (FER00001 through FER00020) that combined design elements from both the watchmaker and carmaker.

Panerai Ferrari

With large cushion-shaped cases, circular dials, and prominent lugs, the Panerai Ferrari models are unmistakably Panerai watches. Yet the “Ferrari Engineered by Officine Panerai” models were different than Radiomirs and Luminors, benefitting from new case and dial design. Moreover, if you look closely at the watches, you’ll notice that there’s no Panerai branding on the dial–only Ferrari.

The Panerai Ferrari lineup included Granturismo versions with checkered patters on the dial, sportier Scuderia versions with bolder dial executions, often with pops of color, and other editions that didn’t fall into these two categories. The watches often feature complications such as chronographs, rattrapante chronographs, flyback chronographs, alarms, GMTs, and even perpetual calendars.

Panerai Mare Nostrum

The Mare Nostrum chronograph was also a part of that inaugural Panerai collection in 1993, with a design inspired by the very first Panerai chronograph made in the 1940s. Unlike the other Panerai watch models with cushion-shaped cases, the Mare Nostrum stands out for its round case shape. While the vintage Mare Nostrum featured a massive 52mm case the modern iterations sport wearable 42mm cases.

There have been only three versions of the Mare Nostrum made over the course of Panera’s history: the 1943 version (it’s estimated that only two or three were made), the 1993 version (in production until 1997), and most recently, a 2017 version (limited edition of 1,000 pieces). Mare Nostrum watches are definitely not as common as other Panerai watches but a favorite among Paneristis.

The Panerai Watch

Whether the Radiomir, Luminor, Submersible, or Ferrari (and to a lesser degree, the Mare Nostrum), these timepieces are easily distinguishable as a Panerai watch thanks to the company’s strong design codes.

From producing utilitarian equipment for military men to becoming one of the world’s leading luxury watch brands, Panerai boasts a passionate fan base of not only serious collectors and watch enthusiasts but celebrities too.

Written by

Celine Simon

Celine is a freelance luxury watch writer who has enjoyed working in the horology industry for over ten years. Like many of the high-end timepieces she writes about, she comes from Switzerland—the heart of fine watchmaking. From Singapore to Montreal to Geneva to Dubai, Celine has lived all over the world but now calls Southern California home.